Deception & Surprise
Army Group North
Army Group Center
Army Group South
Battle of Smolensk
Battle of Kiev
Siege of Leningrad
Why Did Barbarossa Fail?
In the Media
The Road to Stalingrad
As a result, Army Group Center was required to loan the 2nd Panzer Group (Panzergruppe 2) to Army Group North, and the 3rd Panzer Group (Panzergruppe 3) to Army Group South. These moves, did leave to further German advances, and a major victory in the Battle of Kiev, but they also delayed the attack on Moscow, until the weather had begun to worsen: the "final" attack on Moscow, Operation Typhoon, began only on October 2nd.
At first the fighting appeared to go relatively well for the Germans, with them yet again surrounding a large pocket of Soviet troops, this time around Vyazma and Bryansk. However, unlike in previous battles, the surrounded Soviet troops did not surrender but instead fought on, tying down large number of German troops which were needed for the offensive, and in some cases, even managing to escape in small groups back to Soviet lines.
The first snow began to fall on October 7th. It quickly melted, but as the Autumn rasputitsa began, the roads turned to mud, greatly slowing the German advances.
Additional difficulties for the Germans were caused by fierce Soviet resistance, Soviet counterattacks, and the arrival of new Soviet T-34 tanks which were almost imprevious to the guns on the German Panzer IV tanks.
Nevertheless, the Germans gradually began to close in Moscow. As a result, Stalin ordered the evacuation of much of the Soviet government to Kuibyshev (today known as "Samara") on October 15th, and defensive fortifications were rapidly thrown up around Moscow by 250,000 civilians (mostly women and teenagers).
On November 7th (Revolution Day), the traditional Soviet military parade took place in Red Square. Troops marched past the Kremlin, and then directly to the frontline.
By On November 15th, the ground had frozen, and the mud was gone, and the Germans attempted to resume their advance. The Germans even managed to (briefly) seize a bridgehead over the Moscow-Volga Canal and come within 22 miles (35 kilometers) of the Kremlin, but by now they were exhausted, whereas the Russians were receiving a steady stream of replacements.
Temperatures continued to fall, and on November 30th fell to -45°C (-49°F); conditions that the Germans were completely unprepared for, having neither Winter clothing, nor equipment designed for use in such conditions. The German forces suffered more than 130,000 cases of frostbite (in many cases requiring amputations), frozen grease had to be removed from shells, and vehicle engines had to be heated for hours before they could be used.
Gradually the German offensive petered out: Moscow would not fall in 1941. German General Heinz Guderian wrote in his diary: ""the offensive on Moscow failed...We underestimated the enemy's strength, as well as his size and climate. Fortunately, I stopped my troops on 5 December, otherwise the catastrophe would be unavoidable."
Please share your comments on this page:
Note: This site is not affiliated with nor endorsed by any military or government organization.
Copyright © 2007-2018, Answers 2000 Limited
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE,COMES FROM AMAZON EU S.à r.l. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures
In Association With Amazon.com
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
In Association With Amazon.co.uk
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.co.uk.
All trademarks are property of their respective owners.
All third party content and adverts are copyright of their respective owners.