Deception & Surprise
Army Group North
Army Group Center
Army Group South
Battle of Smolensk
Battle of Kiev
Siege of Leningrad
Why Did Barbarossa Fail?
In the Media
The Road to Stalingrad
Deception and Surprise in Operation Barbarossa
That said, it should have been hard (virtually impossible?) for the Soviet intelligence to fail to notice the huge and gradual assembly of massive Axis military forces on their Western border, and in fact, when one looks at the historical record, it is indeed apparent that parts of the Soviet government were informed of German intentions. Nevertheless, when the Germans did attack, they achieved near total surprise against the Soviet frontier forces, most of which had taken few, if any, defensive precautions against a possible German attack.
So what happened?
First of all let us review how the Soviets should have known of the impending German attack, and how they reacted.
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